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2020-08-11 09:07:02 站长之家
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太古万瞳CHAPTER VI. ON THE NATURE AND OBJECTS OF MACHINERY.力但There is not a more generous or kindly feeling in the world than that with which a skilled mechanic will share his knowledge with those who have gained his esteem, and who he thinks merit and desire the aid that he can give.寂无数百

    证实The division of labour, that system upon which we may say our great industrial interests are founded, is in machine fitting promoted in a wonderful degree by the use of gauging implements. If standard dimensions can be maintained, it is easy to see that the parts of a machine can be constructed by different workmen, or in different shops, and these parts when assembled all fit together, without that tedious and uncertain plan of try-fitting which was once generally practised. There are, it is true, certain kinds of fitting which cannot well be performed by gauges; moving flat surfaces, such as the bearings of lathe slides or the faces of steam engine valves, are sooner and better fitted by trying them together and scraping off the points of contact; but even in such cases the character of the work will be improved, if one or both surfaces have been first levelled by gauging or surface plates.是像家都The steam-engine, in the sense in which the term is employed, means not only steam-using machinery, but steam-generating machinery or plant; it includes the engine proper, with the boiler, mechanism for feeding water to the boiler, machinery for governing speed, indicators, and other details.下剧

  A proof of this last proposition is found in the fact that a thorough latheman will perform nearly as much work and do it as well on an old English lathe with plain screw feed, as can be performed on the more complicated lathes of modern construction; but as economy of skill is sometimes an equal or greater object than a saving of manual labour, estimates of tool capacity should be made accordingly. The main points of a lathe, such as may most readily affect its performance, are first—truth in the bearings of the running spindle which communicates a duplicate of its shape to pieces that are turned,—second, coincidence between the line of the spindle and the movement of the carriage,—third, a cross feed of the tool at a true right angle to the spindle and carriage movement,—fourth, durability of wearing surfaces, especially the spindle bearings and sliding ways. To these may be added many other points, such as the truth of feeding screws, rigidity of frames, and so on, but such requirements are obvious.就是 之惊

    要除Machine-drawing may in some respects be said to bear the same relation to mechanics that writing does to literature; persons may copy manuscript, or write from dictation, of what they do not understand; or a mechanical draughtsman may make drawings of a machine he does not understand; but neither such writing or drawing can have any value beyond that of ordinary labour. It is both necessary and expected that a draughtsman shall understand all the various processes of machine construction, and be familiar with the best examples that are furnished by modern practice.何我很难

    不是This will form an interesting collection of specimens and accustom the eye to the various tints, which after some experience will be instantly recognised when seen separately.之际

   大起分分幸运28官方 This method of treating the subject of motive-engines will no doubt be presenting it in a new way, but it is merely beginning at an unusual place. A learner who commences with first principles, instead of pistons, valves, connections, and bearings, will find in the end that he has not only adopted the best course, but the shortest one to understand steam and other expansive engines.几乎An apprentice should never ask questions about simple and obvious matters, or about such things as he can easily learn by his own efforts. The more difficult a question is, the more pleasure a skilled man will take in answering it. In short, a learner should carefully consider questions before asking them. A good plan is to write them down, and when information is wanted about casting, never go to a foundry to interrupt a manager or moulder at melting time, nor in the morning, when no one wants to be annoyed with questions.真正


  

亲自8. The expense of the appliances of distribution and their maintenance.多少
  

CHAPTER XIV. HYDRAULIC APPARATUS FOR TRANSMITTING POWER.一击Tangent wheels and spiral gearing have only what is termed line contact between the bearing surfaces, and as the action between these surfaces is a sliding one, such wheels are subject to rapid wear, and are incapable of sustaining much pressure, or transmitting a great amount of power, except the surfaces be hard and lubrication constant. In machinery the use of tangent wheels is mainly to secure a rapid change of speed, usually to diminish motion and increase force.间断


  


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